Niyoga is a process of conceiving a child, when a person is dead or incapable to attain fatherhood can designate or request another person to make her women to conceive a child. The selection of appointing person for this duty likely be elected on the basis of respect and admiration towards concern.This process of conceiving is to protect 'dharma' or righteousness of family. It is not to fulfill the pleasure.
Artificial insemination without joining any intercourse and Cloning the fertilization of egg in laboratories,Stem cells are the other methods which comes parallel with niyoga process.
- In the epic Ramayana, Kalmashapada who is ancestor of Lord Rama. Kalmashpada was the son of Raghu from his name Raghuvamsh name originated.Rama is a descendant of Kalmashapada. Kalmashapada queen Madayanti done niyoga process with sage Vashista to bear a child named as Ashmaka.
- In the epic Mahabharata, Bharata kingdom queen Satyavathi called her son Sage Vyasa to do Niyoga process for her widow daughter-in-laws Ambika, Ambalika and her maid Parishrami to produce Dhritarashtra, Panduraj and Vidura as sons. Again Panduraj was incapable to give a child to her wives Kunti and madri, they got pandavas by performing Niyoga process.
- Again Vyasa protected unfertilized egg which came out from Queen gandhari womb by keeping them in Ghee pots to give births to 101 Kauravas.
- In Bhagavatha- 4 skanda, Their is a story of King Vena, Due to Vena curel intentions and evil activities great sages killed him. But to establish a king or legal heir for kingdom, sages churned thighs and arms of king vena to give births to Prithu, Archi and a demon. These children were born without intervention of female.
- Another story which revolve on birth of King Balarama who is brother of Lord Krishna.In the presence of Vasudeva( father of Krishna & Balarama) Devaki 7th womb was transferred to Rohini by Yogamaya. Balarama was taken birth from Rohini.
- Kshetrabijam, to beget a son on his wife was also explained in Kautilya Arthasastra.
- Child who born in this niyoga process is considered the child of Wife and Husband. The selected person for niyoga process will not become father of child.
- The born child was called as kshetraja - child of wife and husband.
- The selected person will not allow to make relationship with mother or child in future.
- The selected person will allow only three times for niyoga process in his life time.
- The persons who participate in niyoga process, their whole bodies will be covered by ghee to eliminate lust from their minds.
- According to Manusmriti this process was forbidden. And treated it as social custom, not as religious custom.
- In Ramayana, the origin of Ashmaka may give an idea of Artificial insemination. Injecting a sperm in womb to fertilize egg without any physical intercourse. Even pandavs birth may be related to Artificial insemination.
- The story of Kauravas will remind us Test-tube baby. Which means an egg is fertilized by sperm in outside environment.
- In Bhagavatham, The story of king Vena will raise thoughts on Cloning. Reproducing genetic xerox copy of a person by propagating an organism or cell.
- Balarama birth may be taken place with technology of surrogate baby or rent a womb. When health related issues arouse in pregnant lady she can transfer womb to another womb to protect the baby which is called as Surrogate baby.
- In this criteria Foster father differs from biological father. But child remains as a son of foster father.